UNIT 4 – International Relations

 

*Realism*

Realism emphasizes the role of state, national interest and power in world politics ( 1930-40 )

 

Classical Realism ( Morgenthau )

 

Classical Realism focuses on Pessimistic view of Human Nature & States are the primary actors

 

Classical Realism Thinkers

  • Thucydides
  • Machiavelli
  • Hobbes
  • Morgenthau
  • E.H. Carr
  • Reinhold Niebuhr

 

Morgenthau Six Principles of Realism

  • Politics is governed by Objective Laws.
  • National Interest is defined in terms of Power
  • Political Ethics is different from Universal Moral principles.
  • Nations cannot impose their National aspirations onto other Nation
  • Pessimistic view of Human Nature
  • Politics is an autonomous sphere

 

● “Moral Reasoning has little or nothing to do with relation between states.”  – Thucydides

● “ANIMUS DOMINANDI” – Hans J Morgenthau

● International System is a permanent ‘State of Nature’ – Hobbes

● The History of Peloponnesian War –  Thucydides

● Politics Among Nations 1948 – H.J Morgenthau

● The Twenty Years’ Crisis, 1919-1939 – E. H. Carr

 

 

Neo Realism ( Kenneth Waltz )

 

 

Neo-Realism reforms Classical Realism, It adds the scientific and structural dimension to it and focuses on International Structure unlike Classic Realism which focuses Human Nature.

 

Neo Realism Thinkers

  • Kenneth Waltz
  • John Mearsheimer
  • Stephen Walt
  • Robert Gilpin

 

● Neo Realist Theory “Structures are more important than agents” – Kenneth Waltz

● Theory of International Politics (1979) – Kenneth Waltz

● Man, the State and War (1959) – Kenneth Waltz

● Strategic Realism – Thomas Schelling

● The Tragedy of Great Power Politics’ (2001) –  John Mearsheimer

● Offensive Realism (Seeks for Power ): John Mearsheimer

● Defensive Realism (Seeks for Security ): Kenneth Waltz, Stephen Walt

 

Post-Colonial Realism

 

Mohammad Ayub

 

Facts and Books:

 

  • The Twenty Years Crisis 1939) by E. H. Carr
  • Moral Man and Immoral Society (1932) and Nature and Destiny of Man (1939) by Reinhold Niebuhr
  • Perception and Misperception in International Politics by Robert Jervis
  • System and Process in International Politics (1957) by Morton A. Kaplan
  • Reinhold Niebuhr: Christian realism; moral man and immoral politics 1932.

 

 

*Liberalism*

 

Liberalism in IR contains a variety of concepts and arguments about how institutions, behaviours and economic connections; contain and mitigate the violent power of states

 

Types of Liberalism in IR

  • Sociological Liberalism
  • Interdependence Liberalism
  • Institutional Liberalism
  • Republican Liberalism

 

● Karl Deutsch concept of Security Community –  Political Community and North Atlantic (1957)

● Robert Keohane and Joseph Nye – Complex Interdependence ( Neo-liberalism IR )

● Immanuel Kant and Michael Doyle –  Republican Liberalism

● Functionalist Theory of Integration : David Mitrany – Functionalist Theory of Politics (1975)

● Neo-Functionalist Theory of Integration : Ernst Hass – Beyond the Nation-State (1964)

● Richard Rosecrance gave the concept of ‘Trading States’ – Action and Reaction in World Politics (1963)

● Richard Rosecrance concept of Trading States – Action and Reaction in World Politics (1963)

● John Burton supported Cobweb Model – World will benefit by Mutual Cooperation not Conflict

● James Rosenau book ‘The Study of Global Interdependence’ (1980)

 

 

Cold War ( Mar 1947 – Dec 1991 )

 

 

● Bernard Baruch coined the term ‘Cold War

● Baruch plan 1946 -> USA proposed the plan for nuclear disarmament at the UN

● “Détente” means relaxation between the East and West

● ‘Containment’ was coined by George Kennan

● John Lewis Gaddis Described the Cold War period as “Long Peace”

● Monroe Doctrine by President James in 1823

● Cuban Missile Crisis – Oct 1962 – 13 days

● Malta Summit  1989  – Declaration of the End of Cold War

● M.A.D doctrine – Mutual assured destruction (MAD)

● Truman doctrine – 1947 United States would support any country threatened by communist expansion

● Marshal Plan – 1948 aid to Western Europe to Rebuild

● Molotov Plan -> Soviet response against Marshall Plan

● Bizonian Issue – 1946, the American and British occupation zones in Germany merged to form Bizonia

● Korean Crisis – 1950–1953

● Vietnam War – 1955 – 1975

● Afghanistan War – 1979 – 1989

● Berlin Blockade (1948) — NATO (Apr 1949) — Warsaw Pact ( 1955 – 1991 ) — Berlin Wall  (1961 – 1989)

● 1955 Middle East Defense Organization (CENTO pact)

● 1964 Partial Test Ban Treaty. (PTBT).

● 1967 Outer space treaty.

● 1969 NPT .

● 1972 ABM treaty

● 1972 SALT 1 Strategic Arms limitation treaty

● 1975 Helsinki Accords.

● Ronald Reagan (SDI) known as the Star Wars Project.

● Sinatra Doctrine: Freedom on IR to Central Asian Countries

● Perestroika: Free Market

● Glasnost: Free Press

NAM (120)

 

● “Non-Alignment” was coined by V.K. Krishna Menon 1953

● Asia-Africa Bandung Conference held in 1955 in Indonesia.

● First conference of NAM took place at Belgrade in 1961 ( 29 Afro-Asian Countries )

● 18th NAM summit – Baku  > 19th NAM summit – Kampala

● Theme “Deepening cooperation for Shared Global Affluence”

● Havana Declaration of 1979

● Congress of Vienna (1814-15) when the neutrality of Switzerland

 

SAARC (1985)

 

Afghanistan was last member-state to join SAARC in 2007

The Secretariat of SAARC was set up in Kathmandu, Nepal on 17th January 1987

PTA in 1995

SDF = 2010

At the Islamabad summit 2004 , countries agreed for SAFTA

 

SAARC Specialized Bodies areas follows :

• South Asian University (SAU) – New Delhi, India
• South Asian Regional Standards Organization (SARSO) – Dhaka.
• SAARC Development Fund (SDF) – Bhutan.
• SAARC Arbitration Council (SARCO) – Pakistan.

 

 

UNO

 

The United Nations Declaration – 1942

The United Nations was founded on 24th October 1945

UN Charter was signed on 26th June 1945 at San Francisco

South Sudan joined in 2011 – 193 member

UNGA , UNSC , ECOSOC , ICJ , UN Secretariat , Trusteeship Council

The duration of judges in ICJ is for 9 years (15 judges)

Trusteeship Council has been suspended from 1st November 1994.

ECOSOC shall be elected for three years (54 members)

Non-Permanent Members of the Security Council shall be elected for two years

 

UN Charter – Important Chapters:

  • Chapter 4 – UNGA
  • Chapter 5 – UNSC
  • Chapter 6 – Peaceful settlement of disputes
  • Chapter 7 – Use of Force to bring peace
  • Chapter 14 – ICJ

 

● Food and Agriculture Organization (1945, Hq- Rome)

● International Telecommunication Union (1865, Hq-Geneva)

● International Fund for Agricultural Development (1977, Hq-Rome)

● International Labour Organisation (1919, Hq- Geneva)

● UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development Organization) – 1966/ Vienna

● International Maritime Organization (1948, Hq- London)

● International Monetary Fund (1945, Hq- Washington)

● UNESCO (1946, Hq- Paris)

● World Health Organization (1948, Hq- Geneva)

● WMO (World Meteorological Organization) 1950/Geneva

● World Bank Group 1944/ Washington.

 

 

ASEAN

 

8th August 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand.

1971 – (ZOPFAN) to avoid an arms race.

1974 – ASEAN Devlop. Fund

1977 – ASEAN preferential trading arrangement.

1992 – ASEAN Free Trade Agreement.

1993 – Singapore agreed to establish the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF)

1994 – Inaugural meeting ARF – Bangkok

1996 – India became a full dialogue partner.

2002 – India became a Summit-Level Partner.

2007 – ASEAN has adopted the ASEAN charter.

2012 – India and ASEAN have become Strategic partners.

2015 – India ASEAN FTA Services

 

Current Sec. Gen = Lim Jock

 

EU (1993) 27 Members

 

Treaty of Paris (1951) –  European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)

Treaty of Rome (1957) – European Economic Community.  EEC & EAEC

First Expansion (1973) – Britain, Denmark, Ireland.

Schengen Area  (1985)

SEA – Single European Act (1987):  4 freedoms: Freedom of 1.Goods, 2. Services, 3. Capital, 4. People

Maastricht Treaty (1993): Came to be known as European Union.

Monetary Union (1999) -: Give birth to Euro

Treaty of Lisbon (2007) -EU constitution

2012 – EU won the Nobel Peace Prize

Brexit Referendum – 23rd June 2016

 

 

Organizations under the EU:

  • European Council
  • Council of European Union
  • European Commission
  • European Parliament
  • European Court of Justice

 

India-China Relations

 

 

Panchsheel Agreement

 

29th April 1954 between  Nehru and Zhou En-Lai

 

  1. Mutual Respect for Territorial Integrity and Sovereignty
  2. Non-Aggression
  3. Non-Interference in Internal affairs
  4. Equality
  5. Peaceful co-existence

 

● India becomes second non- communist nation to recognize the PRC 1 Apr 1950

● Chinese Troops invaded Tibet on 7th October 1950

● Panchsheel Agreement 1954

● Dalai Lama took asylum in India in 1959

● China refused McMohan Line on September 1959 — Simla Convention 1914 – McMohan Line

● Rajiv Gandhi visited China in 1988

● Premier Zhu Rongji led a state-visit to India in 2002

● BJP TO CHINA VISITI 2003 – China recognised Sikkim as part of India in 2003

● Nathu La Pass on 6th July 2006, after a closure of 44 years

● Wuhan Summit (2018) – Mamallapuram Summit (2019)

● Doklam Crisis of 2017 – 73 days

● Tawang stand-off 2022

 

India-Pakistan Relations

 

● Nehru-Liaquat Pact 1950 – Rights of Minorities

● Indus Water Treaty World Bank in 1960 – Nehru & Ayub

● Lahore Declaration – February 1999

● Agra Summit July 2001

● Srinagar to Muzaffarabad Bus Service in 2005

● Uri – 18th September 2016 ,  Surgical Strikes – 29th September 201

● Kartarpur Corridor 9th November 2019

 

India-USA Relations

 

● Norman Borlaug & Swaminathan 1963 – Green Revolution

●  USA Imposed Sanction in 1974 – Jimmy Carter Visit 1978 – Indira visit 1982

● Sanction Again in 1998 – Bill Clinton visit 2000 – Bush Lifted Sanctions 2001

 

DEALS

  • Civil Nuclear Deal – 2nd March 2005
  • NSSP – 2004
  • 123 Agreement
  • LEMOA – 2016
  • COMCASA – 2018
  • First 2+2 Dialogue  – 2018
  • BECA – 26th November 2020

 

 

Treaties

 

Geneva Protocol

NPT

ABM

SALT II

 

Books

 

Thucydides –  ● The History of the Peloponnesian War ●  Melian dialogue

 

Hans Morgenthau

● Scientific Man vs. Power Politics (1946)
●Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace  (1948)
● In Defense of the National Interest  (1951)
● The Purpose of American Politics  (1960)
● Truth and Power: Essays of a Decade, 1960-70″ (1970)

 

 

Kenneth Waltz

● Man, the State, and War (1959)
● Foreign Policy and Democratic Politics: The American and British Experience (1967)
● Theory of International Politics (1979)
● The Spread of nuclear weapons: More May Better (1981)
● The Origins of War in Neorealist Theory” (1988)
● Neorealism and Its Critics” (1986)
● The Balance of Power in International Relations: Metaphors, Myths, and Models” (2006)

 

 

 

Miscellaneous

 

Pakistan signed the SEATO pact in 1954, and Baghdad Pact (later named CENTO) in 1955 with the USA.

 


BRICS

● Jim O’Neill coined BRIC

● 1st BRIC F.M meeting in 2006 — 1st BRIC summit 2010 —  South Africa Join- 2010

● 6th BRICS Summit 2014 in Fortaleza  = New Development Bank & BRICS Contingency Reserve

● 15th BRICS summit Johannesburg = BRICS and Africa: Partnership

 


AU (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia)

● African Union  is made of 55 member states in Africa  – Sirte Declaration (1999, Libya)

● Organisation of African Unity (1963)   late African Union ( 2002 )

● AfCFTA – 2018


 

● President Woodrow Wilson proposed a 14-point program

● MDGs – 2000

● NAFTA (1994) – Zapatista uprising – USMCA (2020)

● Thomas Schelling Game Theory in International Relations